Mitochondria are primarily involved in cell bioenergetics, regulation of redox homeostasis, and cell death/survival signaling. An immunostimulatory property of mitochondria has also been recognized which is deployed through the extracellular release of entire or portioned organelle and/or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) unloading. Dynamic homo- and heterotypic interactions involving mitochondria have been described. Each type of connection has functional implications that eventually optimize mitochondrial activity according to the bioenergetic demands of a specific cell/tissue. Inter-organelle communications may also serve as molecular platforms for the extracellular release of mitochondrial components and subsequent ignition of systemic inflammation. Age-related chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased extracellular release of mitochondrial components-in particular, cell-free mtDNA. The close relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular senescence further supports the central role of mitochondria in the aging process and its related conditions. Here, we provide an overview of (1) the mitochondrial genetic system and the potential routes for generating and releasing mtDNA intermediates; (2) the pro-inflammatory pathways elicited by circulating mtDNA; (3) the participation of inter-organelle contacts to mtDNA homeostasis; and (4) the link of these processes with senescence and age-associated conditions.

Circulating Mitochondrial DNA and Inter-Organelle Contact Sites in Aging and Associated Conditions

Flora Guerra;Roberta ROMANO;Cecilia Bucci;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Mitochondria are primarily involved in cell bioenergetics, regulation of redox homeostasis, and cell death/survival signaling. An immunostimulatory property of mitochondria has also been recognized which is deployed through the extracellular release of entire or portioned organelle and/or mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) unloading. Dynamic homo- and heterotypic interactions involving mitochondria have been described. Each type of connection has functional implications that eventually optimize mitochondrial activity according to the bioenergetic demands of a specific cell/tissue. Inter-organelle communications may also serve as molecular platforms for the extracellular release of mitochondrial components and subsequent ignition of systemic inflammation. Age-related chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased extracellular release of mitochondrial components-in particular, cell-free mtDNA. The close relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular senescence further supports the central role of mitochondria in the aging process and its related conditions. Here, we provide an overview of (1) the mitochondrial genetic system and the potential routes for generating and releasing mtDNA intermediates; (2) the pro-inflammatory pathways elicited by circulating mtDNA; (3) the participation of inter-organelle contacts to mtDNA homeostasis; and (4) the link of these processes with senescence and age-associated conditions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11587/476325
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