The xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are enzymes involved in cell wall assembly and growth regulation, cleaving and re-joining hemicellulose chains in the xyloglucan–cellulose network. Here, in a homologous system, we compare the secretion patterns of XTH11, XTH33 and XTH29, three members of the Arabidopsis thaliana XTH family, selected for the presence (XTH11 and XTH33) or absence (XTH29) of a signal peptide, and the presence of a transmembrane domain (XTH33). We show that XTH11 and XTH33 reached, respectively, the cell wall and plasma membrane through a conventional protein secretion (CPS) pathway, whereas XTH29 moves towards the apoplast following an unconventional protein secretion (UPS) mediated by exocyst-positive organelles (EXPOs). All XTHs share a common C-terminal functional domain (XET-C) that, for XTH29 and a restricted number of other XTHs (27, 28 and 30), continues with an extraterminal region (ETR) of 45 amino acids. We suggest that this region is necessary for the correct cell wall targeting of XTH29, as the ETR-truncated protein never reaches its final destination and is not recruited by EXPOs. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses performed on 4-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to drought and heat stress suggest a different involvement of the three XTHs in cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress, evidencing stress-, organ- and time-dependent variations in the expression levels. Significantly, XTH29, codifying the only XTH that follows a UPS pathway, is highly upregulated with respect to XTH11 and XTH33, which code for CPS-secreted proteins.

Ride to cell wall: Arabidopsis XTH11, XTH29 and XTH33 exhibit different secretion pathways and responses to heat and drought stress

De Caroli M.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Piro G.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Lenucci M. S.
Writing – Review & Editing
2021-01-01

Abstract

The xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are enzymes involved in cell wall assembly and growth regulation, cleaving and re-joining hemicellulose chains in the xyloglucan–cellulose network. Here, in a homologous system, we compare the secretion patterns of XTH11, XTH33 and XTH29, three members of the Arabidopsis thaliana XTH family, selected for the presence (XTH11 and XTH33) or absence (XTH29) of a signal peptide, and the presence of a transmembrane domain (XTH33). We show that XTH11 and XTH33 reached, respectively, the cell wall and plasma membrane through a conventional protein secretion (CPS) pathway, whereas XTH29 moves towards the apoplast following an unconventional protein secretion (UPS) mediated by exocyst-positive organelles (EXPOs). All XTHs share a common C-terminal functional domain (XET-C) that, for XTH29 and a restricted number of other XTHs (27, 28 and 30), continues with an extraterminal region (ETR) of 45 amino acids. We suggest that this region is necessary for the correct cell wall targeting of XTH29, as the ETR-truncated protein never reaches its final destination and is not recruited by EXPOs. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses performed on 4-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to drought and heat stress suggest a different involvement of the three XTHs in cell wall remodeling under abiotic stress, evidencing stress-, organ- and time-dependent variations in the expression levels. Significantly, XTH29, codifying the only XTH that follows a UPS pathway, is highly upregulated with respect to XTH11 and XTH33, which code for CPS-secreted proteins.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11587/463456
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