Intermediate filaments are the most heterogeneous class among cytoskeletal elements. While some of them have been well-characterized, little is known about peripherin. Peripherin is a class III intermediate filament protein with a specific expression in the peripheral nervous system. Epigenetic modifications are involved in this cell-type-specific expression. Peripherin has important roles in neurite outgrowth and stability, axonal transport, and axonal myelination. Moreover, peripherin interacts with proteins involved in vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, DNA/RNA processing, protein folding, and mitochondrial metabolism, suggesting a role in all these processes. This review collects information regarding peripherin gene regulation, post-translational modifications, and functions and its involvement in the onset of a number of diseases.
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