Microalgae are continually exposed to heavy metals and metalloids (HMMs), which stifles their development and reproduction due to the resulting physiological and metabolic abnormalities, leading to lower crop productivity. They must thus change their way of adapting to survive in such a hostile environment without sacrificing their healthy growth, development, reproductive capacity, or survival. The mode of adaptation involves a complex relationship of signalling cascades that govern gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which consequently produces altered but adapted biochemical and physiochemical parameters. Algae have been reported to have altered their physicochemical and molecular perspectives as a result of exposure to a variety of HMMs. Hence, in this review, we focused on how microalgae alter their physicochemical and molecular characteristics as a tolerance mechanism in response to HMM-induced stress. Furthermore, physiological and biotechnological methods can be used to enhance extracellular absorption and clean up. The introduction of foreign DNA into microalgae cells and the genetic alteration of genes can boost the bio-accumulation and remediation capabilities of microalgae. In this regard, microalgae represent an excellent model organism and could be used for HMM removal in the near future.

Microalgal Phycoremediation: A Glimpse into a Sustainable Environment

Ragusa A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Microalgae are continually exposed to heavy metals and metalloids (HMMs), which stifles their development and reproduction due to the resulting physiological and metabolic abnormalities, leading to lower crop productivity. They must thus change their way of adapting to survive in such a hostile environment without sacrificing their healthy growth, development, reproductive capacity, or survival. The mode of adaptation involves a complex relationship of signalling cascades that govern gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which consequently produces altered but adapted biochemical and physiochemical parameters. Algae have been reported to have altered their physicochemical and molecular perspectives as a result of exposure to a variety of HMMs. Hence, in this review, we focused on how microalgae alter their physicochemical and molecular characteristics as a tolerance mechanism in response to HMM-induced stress. Furthermore, physiological and biotechnological methods can be used to enhance extracellular absorption and clean up. The introduction of foreign DNA into microalgae cells and the genetic alteration of genes can boost the bio-accumulation and remediation capabilities of microalgae. In this regard, microalgae represent an excellent model organism and could be used for HMM removal in the near future.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11587/475807
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