The supply of nutrients, such as antioxidant agents, to fish cells still represents a challenge in aquaculture. In this context, we investigated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of a combination of Gelucire(R) 50/13 and Precirol(R) ATO5 to administer a grape seed extract (GSE) mixture containing several antioxidant compounds. The combination of the two lipids for the SLN formation resulted in colloids exhibiting mean particle sizes in the range 139-283 nm and zeta potential values in the range +25.6-43.4 mV. Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction evidenced structural differences between the free GSE and GSE-loaded SLN, leading to the conclusion that GSE alters the structure of the lipid nanocarriers. From a biological viewpoint, cell lines from gilthead seabream and European sea bass were exposed to different concentrations of GSE-SLN for 24 h. In general, at appropriate concentrations, GSE-SLN increased the viability of the fish cells. Furthermore, regarding the gene expression in those cells, the expression of antioxidant genes was upregulated, whereas the expression of hsp70 and other genes related to the cytoskeleton was downregulated. Hence, an SLN formulation containing Gelucire(R) 50/13/Precirol(R) ATO5 and GSE may represent a compelling platform for improving the viability and antioxidant properties of fish cells.
Daniela Erminia Manno
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