In our study, FISH mapping using 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA and 5S rDNA sequences was performed for the first time on Ophrys tenthredinifera Willdenow, 1805, Serapias vomeracea (Burman f., 1770) Briquet, 1910 and Himantoglossum hircinum (Linnaeus, 1753) Sprengel, 1826. A detailed study was also performed on O. tenthredinifera using Giemsa-staining, silver-staining, CMA fluorescence banding and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with rDNA probes. We analysed two subspecies, i.e. O. tenthredinifera subsp. neglecta (Parlatore, 1860) E.G. Camus, 1908 and O. tenthredinifera subsp. grandiflora (Tenore, 1819) Kreutz, 2004 by the traditional Feulgen method and constructed the karyotype. The cytotaxonomic im-plications for both taxa are also discussed. In Himantoglossum hircinum, FISH and silver staining high-lighted differences in the number of two rDNA families (35S and 5S) with respect to Barlia robertiana (Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, 1807) Greuter, 1967. In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridisation was also applied to diploid (2n = 2x = 36) and triploid (2n = 3x = 54) Anacamptis morio (Linnaeus, 1753) R.M. Bateman, Pridgeon et M.W. Chase, 1997. As far as we are aware, this is the first case of autotriploidy observed in A. morio.
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