Prenatal alcohol exposure is considered one of the main causes of preventable birth disorders; however, it represents the main form of developmental delay in the world. Among the so-called secondary disabilities related to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), there is a close connection with criminal behavior. This systematic review aims to provide up-to-date information about the relationship between FASD subjects and criminal justice analyzing different aspects. In light of the results of this review, a further goal is to provide several suggestions in order to reduce the public cost impact of FASD. A systematic review of the literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines, producing 20 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Based on the results published in the selected studies, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of preventable birth disorders and developmental disabilities in newborns. Moreover, these subjects seem to be more inclined to criminal acts compared to others. In conclusion, it should be pointed out that FASD entails high public health costs, both regarding the support measures provided to the affected individual and to their family, as well as the cost and social impact of any criminal offenses committed.
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