The term â€ lifestyle' includes different factors that contribute to the maintenance of a good health status. Increasing evidences suggest that lifestyle factors may influence epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNAs expression. The dysregulation of miRNAs can modify the expression of genes and molecular pathways that may lead to functional alterations. This review summarizes human studies highlighting that diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption may affect the miRNA machinery and several biological functions. Most miRNAs are involved in molecular pathways that influence inflammation, cell cycle regulation and carcinogenesis resulting in the onset or progression of pathological conditions. Investigating these interactions will be pivotal for understanding the etiology of pathologic processes, the potential new treatment strategies and for preventing diseases.
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