Microvesicles (MVs) are large extracellular vesicles differing in size, cargo and composition that share a common mechanism of release from the cells through the direct outward budding of the plasma membrane. They are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions and represent promising biomarkers for diseases. MV heterogeneity together with the lack of specific markers had strongly hampered the development of effective methods for MV isolation and differential centrifugation remains the most used method to purify MVs. In this study, we analysed the capacity of the differential centrifugation method to isolate MVs from cell-conditioned medium using flow cytometry and TEM/AFM microscopy. We found that the loss of MVs (general population and/or specific subpopulations) represents a major and underestimate drawback of the differential centrifugation protocol. We demonstrate that the choice of the appropriate rotor type (fixed-angle vs swinging-bucket) and the implementation of an additional washing procedure to the first low-speed centrifugation step of the protocol allow to overcome this problem increasing the total amount of isolated vesicles and avoiding the selective loss of MV subpopulations. These parameters/procedures should be routinely employed into optimized differential centrifugation protocols to ensure isolation of the high-quantity/quality MVs for the downstream analysis/applications.

Selective loss of microvesicles is a major issue of the differential centrifugation isolation protocols

Nigro A.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Ferraro M. M.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Manno D. E.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Furlan R.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Microvesicles (MVs) are large extracellular vesicles differing in size, cargo and composition that share a common mechanism of release from the cells through the direct outward budding of the plasma membrane. They are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions and represent promising biomarkers for diseases. MV heterogeneity together with the lack of specific markers had strongly hampered the development of effective methods for MV isolation and differential centrifugation remains the most used method to purify MVs. In this study, we analysed the capacity of the differential centrifugation method to isolate MVs from cell-conditioned medium using flow cytometry and TEM/AFM microscopy. We found that the loss of MVs (general population and/or specific subpopulations) represents a major and underestimate drawback of the differential centrifugation protocol. We demonstrate that the choice of the appropriate rotor type (fixed-angle vs swinging-bucket) and the implementation of an additional washing procedure to the first low-speed centrifugation step of the protocol allow to overcome this problem increasing the total amount of isolated vesicles and avoiding the selective loss of MV subpopulations. These parameters/procedures should be routinely employed into optimized differential centrifugation protocols to ensure isolation of the high-quantity/quality MVs for the downstream analysis/applications.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11587/454844
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