Studies of the origins of agriculture in the Near East have revealed that the eight plant species known as “Founder Crops”, i.e. emmer, einkorn, barley, lentils, peas, chickpeas, bitter vetch and flax, derived from annual self-pollinating wild predecessors, were all domesticated in roughly the same period. Recent research however has prompted new debate on whether there are really only eight “Founder Crops” species in the Near East. Interest has focused on “new” glume wheat (NGW), a Triticum species identified for the first time by de Moulins at the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) site of Caferhöyük in Eastern Anatolia. After this identification, similar remains were identified in Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Greece and were named “new” glume wheat. Recently, the remains of NGW spikelet bases have been documented in two settlements in Turkey: Yumuktepe (Cilicia) and Yenikapı (eastern Thrace). The remains of NGW spikelet bases from these two settlements underwent morphobiometric analysis in order to contribute to discussion of the morphological character of NGW spikelets. In addition, a whole NGW spikelet from Yenikapı was analysed, contributing to discussion of the morphological features of NGW caryopses. At the same time, these attestations open up new debate not only on its large-scale presence in Anatolia but also its origins and the ways and routes by which it spread to other regions. In this study, the two basic models of domestication and geographical expansion, i.e. the “rapid transition model” and the “protracted model”, are assessed on the basis of the new evidence of NGW in Turkey and the relationship with other European sites where it is attested.

Recent attestations of “new” glume wheat in Turkey: a reassessment of its role in the reconstruction of Neolithic agriculture

Fiorentino G.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Studies of the origins of agriculture in the Near East have revealed that the eight plant species known as “Founder Crops”, i.e. emmer, einkorn, barley, lentils, peas, chickpeas, bitter vetch and flax, derived from annual self-pollinating wild predecessors, were all domesticated in roughly the same period. Recent research however has prompted new debate on whether there are really only eight “Founder Crops” species in the Near East. Interest has focused on “new” glume wheat (NGW), a Triticum species identified for the first time by de Moulins at the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) site of Caferhöyük in Eastern Anatolia. After this identification, similar remains were identified in Neolithic and Bronze Age sites in Greece and were named “new” glume wheat. Recently, the remains of NGW spikelet bases have been documented in two settlements in Turkey: Yumuktepe (Cilicia) and Yenikapı (eastern Thrace). The remains of NGW spikelet bases from these two settlements underwent morphobiometric analysis in order to contribute to discussion of the morphological character of NGW spikelets. In addition, a whole NGW spikelet from Yenikapı was analysed, contributing to discussion of the morphological features of NGW caryopses. At the same time, these attestations open up new debate not only on its large-scale presence in Anatolia but also its origins and the ways and routes by which it spread to other regions. In this study, the two basic models of domestication and geographical expansion, i.e. the “rapid transition model” and the “protracted model”, are assessed on the basis of the new evidence of NGW in Turkey and the relationship with other European sites where it is attested.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11587/450278
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