The effects of exercise training on lipid metabolism and coronary heart disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 319: H76-H88, 2020. First published May 22, 2020; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00708. 2019.-Blood lipoproteins are formed by various amounts of cholesterol (C), triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids, and apolipoproteins (Apos). ApoA1 is the major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), accounting for ~70% of HDL protein, and mediates many of the antiatherogenic functions of HDL. Conversely, ApoB is the predominant low-density lipoprotein (LDL) Apo and is an indicator of circulating LDL, associated with higher coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Thus, the ratio of ApoB to ApoA1 (ApoB/ApoA1) is used as a surrogate marker of the risk of CHD related to lipoproteins. Elevated or abnormal levels of lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood are a significant CHD risk factor, and several studies support the idea that aerobic exercise decreases CHD risk by partially lowering serum TG and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and increasing HDL-C levels. Exercise also exerts an effect on HDL-C maturation and composition and on reverse C transport from peripheral cells to the liver to favor its catabolism and excretion. This process prevents atherosclerosis, and several studies showed that exercise training increases heart lipid metabolism and protects against cardiovascular disease. In these and other ways, it more and more appears that regular exercise, nutrition, and strategies to modulate lipid profile should be viewed as an integrated whole. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of endurance training on the nontraditional lipid biomarkers, including ApoB, ApoA1, and ApoB/ApoA1, in CHD risk.
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