Performance management requires the development of a performance measurement system and the use of performance measures for service improvement. The literature provides evidence of performance management in local governments, in the United States and in other countries, focusing primarily on larger local governments. We respond by presenting a comparative case study analysis between three municipalities from the United States and two municipalities from Italy within the population range of 1,000 to 4,999. The findings of our research suggest that performance management can be found in smaller local governments when the necessary leadership and the higher-order measures of efficiency and effectiveness are in place.
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