Purpose: Despite the numerous studies on the factors involved in the genesis and growth of uterine leiomyomas, the pathogenesis of these tumors remains unknown. Intrinsic abnormalities of the myometrium, abnormal myometrial receptors for estrogen, and hormonal changes or altered responses to ischemic damage during the menstrual period may be responsible for the initiation of (epi)genetic changes found in these tumors. Considering these elements, we aimed to offer an overview about epigenetic and genetic landscape of uterine leiomyomas. Methods: Narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. Results: Several studies showed that leiomyomas have a monoclonal origin. Accumulating evidence converges on the risk factors and mechanisms of tumorigenesis: the translocation t (12;14) and deletion of 7q were found in the highest percentages of recurrence; dysregulation of the HMGA2 gene has been mapped within the critical 12q14-q15 locus. Estrogen and progesterone are recognized as promoters of tumor growth, and the potential role of environmental estrogens has been poorly explored. The growth factors with mitogenic activity, such as transforming growth factor-β3, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I are elevated in fibroids and may have a role as effectors of the tumor promotion. Conclusion: The new clues on genetics and epigenetics, as well as about the growth factors that control normal and pathological myometrial cellular biology may be of great help for the development of new effective and less invasive therapeutic strategies in the near future.

Epigenetic and genetic landscape of uterine leiomyomas: a current view over a common gynecological disease

Vergara D;
2017

Abstract

Purpose: Despite the numerous studies on the factors involved in the genesis and growth of uterine leiomyomas, the pathogenesis of these tumors remains unknown. Intrinsic abnormalities of the myometrium, abnormal myometrial receptors for estrogen, and hormonal changes or altered responses to ischemic damage during the menstrual period may be responsible for the initiation of (epi)genetic changes found in these tumors. Considering these elements, we aimed to offer an overview about epigenetic and genetic landscape of uterine leiomyomas. Methods: Narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. Results: Several studies showed that leiomyomas have a monoclonal origin. Accumulating evidence converges on the risk factors and mechanisms of tumorigenesis: the translocation t (12;14) and deletion of 7q were found in the highest percentages of recurrence; dysregulation of the HMGA2 gene has been mapped within the critical 12q14-q15 locus. Estrogen and progesterone are recognized as promoters of tumor growth, and the potential role of environmental estrogens has been poorly explored. The growth factors with mitogenic activity, such as transforming growth factor-β3, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I are elevated in fibroids and may have a role as effectors of the tumor promotion. Conclusion: The new clues on genetics and epigenetics, as well as about the growth factors that control normal and pathological myometrial cellular biology may be of great help for the development of new effective and less invasive therapeutic strategies in the near future.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11587/415353
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