Biodiesel fuels are increasingly attracting interest in the scientific community and in the world motor industry. The morphological analysis of injected sprays is a key factor to increase engine performances using new biodiesel fuels and to compare them with those related to the use of conventional fuels. In this paper, an experimental setup is realised to carry out test campaigns, in order to analyse and compare the spray injections of different fuel typologies. A PC-interfaced electronic system was realised for driving BOSCH injectors and for varying the injection pressure and opening time. Hence, the morphological analysis was performed for each tested fuel by characterising the shaperatio and penetration depth inside the velocimetric chamber. The results show higher penetration values for biodiesel fuels due to their viscosity and drops in superficial tension, which facilitate a deeper penetration compared to those obtained with conventional diesel fuels. Although used biodiesels contain only 20% of renewable vegetable-origin diesel fuels, the viscosity and superficial tension are slightly higher than those of petroleum diesel, thus determining a weak vaporisation and formation of larger drops. By knowing the morphological behaviour of sprays using biofuels and conventional fuel, it is possible, by using programmable electronic systems, to adjust and improve the spray parameters in order to obtain better engine performances. The results reported in this instance could be utilised by future research works for choosing the most suitable biofuel based on the desired morphological behaviour of the injected sprays.
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