The measurement of cellular and sub cellular responses to chemical contaminants (referred to as biomarkers) in living organisms represents a recent tool in environmental monitoring. It answers to the need to detect exposure and to assess effects of pollutants on biota. Biomarkers have recently become an integral component of environmental monitoring programmes of marine environments in several countries as a supplement to the commonly used contaminant monitoring. The review reports and analyzes new insights and perspectives in the biomarker approach, including its recent application to the detection of the impact of biological pollution in marine environment
SCHETTINO, Trifone;CARICATO, Roberto;CALISI, ANTONIO;GIORDANO, Maria Elena;LIONETTO, Maria Giulia
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