The tooth dimensions of the Upper Palaeolithic( UP) human remains discovered at San Teodoro (STE) in Sicily are the largest among coeval European and Italian samples. In particular the upM2s are bigger than the upM1s at STE, in opposition to all of the UP reference samples; the character observed at STE, shared with the Sicilian Mesolithic samples, is common in the European early UP while it is very rare in the late UP. Archaeological, palaeontological and geological data lead to the supposition that gene-flow between Sicilyand the Italian peninsula has been rare during the UP. The partial isolation of Sicily would have favoured the persistence of an archaic character (upM2s bigger than upM1s) frequent in the populations of early UP, when the colonisation of Sicily took place. The incidence of caries at STE equals those of the coeval populations while it is lower than reported Sicilian Mesolithic incidences. The degree of dental wear is high at STE, the type of wear (upper teeth more used than lower ones, upper I and C more than upper P and M) is very common in UP and Mesolithic samples, it suggests a frequent non-alimentary use of dentition among these populations.
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