Multiple injections and natural gas addition were investigated as ways to modify combustion behaviour, and therefore pollutant emissions and specific fuel consumptions, inside a direct injection Diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system. During the experimental tests, engine efficiency, in terms of fuel consumption, and pollutant emissions, in terms of nitric oxides, opacity, carbon monoxide and total hydrocarbons, have been measured. The tested multiple injection strategy consisted of the simultaneous use of early and pilot injections. This strategy has been compared with the more traditional techniques based on the use of either pilot or early injections. During the tests, the effects of several injection parameters were analysed, like duration and timing of early, pilot and main injections. Results show that, mainly for medium values of engine torque and speed, the injection of a small fuel quantity during the early stage of the compression stroke, coupled with the pilot injection, may be effective in reducing specific fuel consumption if compared to the only pilot or only early injection strategies. Furthermore, this result is obtained whit a simultaneous reduction in nitric oxides and particulate. However, unburned hydrocarbons levels remain constant or usually increase. Early injection is in effect a way to obtain a very lean premixed charge, both globally and locally, inside the combustion chamber. Therefore, it has been shown that nitric oxides and soot, deriving respectively from an inhomogeneous distribution of temperatures and a locally rich mixture, both decrease performing the early and pilot before the main injection. Concerning the natural gas addition, it has been premixed with the engine intake air before the turbocharger and used in small percentages, in order to improve the engine combustion and to reduce pollutant emissions, in particular the soot produced during the mixing-controlled combustion phase. Experiments underlined that, using the natural gas as an additive fuel, while performing the Diesel fuel main injection, leads to keep practically unchanged engine efficiency with respect to the traditional Diesel fuel operation mode. Concerning the emission levels at the exhaust, the use of small quantities of gas (10–30% respect to the total fuel energy) improves the oxides – soot trade-off; however, at the same time, total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are characterized by higher values. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.