If analyzed through the prism of these different notions, European citizenship stands apart for several reasons: first, it is a citizenship without a state; second, it is additional to rather than independent from national citizenship; third, it gives its holders a number of valuable rights, among which the right to non-discrimination when they move to another EU member state; and, finally, it is not aimed at building a self-referential identity. Thus, within the Union, we have a two-tier system of citizenship, which, in some respects, multiplies the advantages of national citizenship. This original construction–built as a legal notion on the basis of common rules and institutions–pertains to the domain of politeia and it scarcely impacts on the national demoi. As this chapter will argue, it is still doubtful whether the European demos actually exists.
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