The present chapter describes some of the most promising applications of microwave reflectometry (MR) for monitoring and sensing purposes in the agrofood industry. The interest toward MR originates from the fact that this technique can satisfy several contrasting requirements, such as low implementation cost, real-time response, possibility of remote control, reliability, and adequate measurement accuracy. Typically, in MR measurements, an electromagnetic (EM) signal is propagated into the system under test (SUT): the analysis of the reflected signal along with a specific data processing is used to retrieve the desired information on the SUT . Applications of MR are numerous and cover a wide range of fields; in fact, thanks to the versatility of the approach, this technique has proven useful for several applications, such as • Localization of faults along cables [2-4] • Geotechnical engineering for assessing distributed pressure profiles [5-10] • Measurement of liquid levels (also in stratified liquids) [11-13] • Monitoring applications in civil engineering for sensing crack/strain in reinforced concrete structures , for fault location on concrete anchors , for monitoring cement hydration , etc. • Water-leak detection in underground metal pipes  A comprehensive overview of the most important and promising applications of MR can be found in . On the other hand, the present chapter focuses on three specific applications in which MR is employed for monitoring purposes in the agrofood industry. In the following paragraphs, first the basic theoretical principles behind MR are recalled and the adopted measurement strategies are discussed. Finally, some interesting test-cases related to MR-based monitoring of agrofoods are presented; in particular, the following applications are considered: 1. Moisture measurement of granular agrofood materials  2. Quality control of vegetable oils [20,21] 3. Monitoring of dehydration process of fruit and vegetables
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