Antenna characterization measurements are traditionally performed in the frequency domain (FD) through vector network analyzers (VNAs) in anechoic chambers. Nevertheless, the expensiveness of these facilities limits the possibility of using this approach for routine measurements. In this chapter, the strategies for the accurate evaluation of the reflection scattering parameter (S 11(f)) of antennas, starting from simple time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements, are described. As a matter of fact, not only are instruments operating in time domain (TD) usually less expensive than VNAs; but they allow performing time windowing, which is the key for excluding the unwanted spurious reflection from the environment, thus avoiding the use of anechoic chamber.
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