Autologous nerve grafting is the current gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury, in cases where direct suturing of nerve ends is not possible. Even though the functional restoration achieved by the autograft is not optimal, autologous nerve tissues still show higher regenerative capability than several synthetic conduits available in the clinical setting, the latter used only for gaps that do not exceed 3 cm in length. The aim of this chapter is to highlight how bio-mimicry, inspired by nerve development, structure and spontaneous regeneration following mild nerve injury, can help in the design of synthetic templates with optimized bioactivity for nerve regeneration.
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