Cereals provide the world’s primary staple food, but still more than a quarter of their production, especially of wheat and corn, are rejected and discarded because contaminated with toxigenic fungi and their metabolites (mycotoxins). This leads to health problems, huge waste of food and land resources and considerable economic damage. Particularly critical are the phases of storage, handling and quality control of these goods. Besides, the current regulations on mycotoxins contamination are unclear about the daily food intake limits and the precautions to be observed to avoid risks. Another important issue that is waiting to be solved is related to the occurrence, in various parts of the world, of very serious accidents, to people and things, by explosion of grain dusts during simple handling activities. In this paper, we’ll investigate on these hazards, the precautions to be observed for the management of cereals and the debatable standards of current legislation. In particular, our attention will be focused, by a critical analysis of current legislation and standards, mainly on the risks of microbiological contamination, during the phases of storage and quality control.
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