Uterine neoplasms are common tumors, formed by endometrial and cervical cancers; endometrial cancer is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in developed countries and the eighth leading cause of cancer death in women, and cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer-related death in women in underdeveloped countries. Cervical cancer arises by HPV DNA damaging; in fact cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of the cervix, exposed to viral infective agents, as HPV, founded in 80% of patients affected by cervical cancer. Thus, more than 99% of cervical uterine cancer cases show HPV presence. Nevertheless, Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium, and increasing evidence indicates that different biological and genetic factors play relevant roles its onset so as carcinogenesis generally develops by hormonal modifications. Both tumors can be safely and feasibly managed from minimally invasive surgical techniques till to endoscopic radical operations, such as hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo- oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for surgical treatment. The authors reviewed several excellent reviews and studies in the area of hormonal, viral and genetical risk factors associated with endometrial and cervical cancer risk and development, analyzing the area of biologic markers, all papers dealing with serum and plasma markers involved in uterine cancer detection, development, progression and minimally invasive treatment.
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